Detection of argemone oil in the adulterated mustard oil by using colour tests and Thin layer chromatography

Argemone mexicana grows abundantly all over the India mainly during the months of March to May. Its seeds are blackish brown, round and netted. These seeds apparently have close resemblance with mustard seeds. Due to this reason, mustard seeds are often adulterated with Argemone mexicana seeds either accidentally or intentionally.

The oil of Argemone mexicana […]


WATER ACTIVITY is an important means of predicting and controlling the shelf life of food products. Shelf life is the time during which a product will remain safe, maintain desired sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties, and comply with nutritional labeling. Many factors influence shelf life such as; water activity, pH, redox potential, oxygen, […]

Antioxidant as preservative.

A preservative is a substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, tires, wood, beverages, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes
An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage cells.
 Antioxidants as Food Preservatives
While commonly regarded for their health benefits, antioxidants […]

Metals as contaminants in food.

Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury are natural occurring chemical compounds. They can be present at various levels in the environment, e.g. soil, water and atmosphere. Metals can also occur as residues in food because of their presence in the environment, as a result of human activities such as farming, industry or […]

What Are Buffers and What Do They Do?

Buffers are an important concept in acid-base chemistry. Here’s a look at what buffers are and how they function.
A buffer is an aqueous solution that has a highly stable pH. If you add acid or base to a buffered solution, its pH will not change significantly. Similarly, adding water to a buffer or allowing water to evaporate will […]

Types of Whisky ?

Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Various grains (which may be malted) are used for different varieties, including barley, corn (maize), rye, and wheat. Whisky is typically aged in wooden casks, generally made of charred white oak.
A still for making whisky is usually made of copper, since […]

Prerequisite Programs: Minimizing Food Safety Hazards Along the Food Supply Chain Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) Sanitation and Hygiene

Food Hygiene

CODEX Definition: All conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food chain.

Prerequisite Program

CODEX Definition : A program that is required prior to the application of the HACCP system to ensure that a [fish and shellfish processing] facility is operating according to the Codex Principles of […]

Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup.

Many plants synthesize compounds called cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis . This ability, known as cyanogenesis, has been recognized for centuries in plants such as apricots, peaches, almonds, and other important food plants . There are at least 2650 species of plants that produce cyanoglycosides. Once the edible […]

Is There Wax on Apples?

Is there really wax on fruits and vegetables?
Yes – the apple is one of the fruits that produces its own wax. Many other fruits produce wax such as plums, pears, etc. The natural wax produced by the apple serves several vital roles. This natural wax:

helps the apples resist moisture loss,

enhances the fruit […]


Emulsions in food are mixtures of oil and water. These normally do not mix and will separate if left without an emulsifier. Roll over the photograph of the mayonnaise to see the effects when the emulsifier is not added.

Mayonnaise contains oil and water. The emulsifier keeps these mixed and without it the oil and […]

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